An area that requires a large amount of pressure relief valves and is not covered very well in literature is cryogenics applications. Below is a short (4 min) video showing how balance bellow valves may lead to highly hazardous situations if used in cryogenic applications
Video can be viewed in full screen
In API520 there is now this comment added in the 2008 edition:
220.127.116.11.9 It is important to remember that the bonnet of a balanced PRV shall be vented to atmosphere at all times. The user should be cautioned of the potential for freezing of atmospheric moisture inside the bonnet in cold service due to auto-refrigeration or cold ambient temperatures.
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About: Brett Mahar is Owner and Director of Process Safety Verification. His passionate about producing the highest quality training content for process safety and over pressure protection. He is the developer and presenter of the online training course “How Teams Can Avert High Potential Hazardous Incidents (Over Pressure Protection)”. Brett sends out regular videos looking at different aspects of over pressure protections, if you would like to subscribe then click here